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Oracle Networking

Oracle networking facilitates accessing of data or movement of data between the databases.
The 3 important files of oracle networking are
Default sample files are available in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/samples directory.
By default, oracle looks for this files in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.
The default location of init.ora is $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init.ora. If we change the init.ora to another location like $ORACLE_HOME/oracle/init.ora, we need to startup the database like
SQL> startup pfile='/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/init.ora'
We can also place the network related files in some other location but in this case we need to export the environment variable TNS_ADMIN.
oracle> export TNS_ADMIN=/home/oracle
listener.ora has to be configured at the serverside and tnsnames.ora has to be configured at the clientside by installing oracle client software.

$sh --> runs in foreground
$sh --> runs in the background
$nohup --> runs in background & writes the log to nohup.dat

We can configure network related files either manually or using NETCA(Network Configuration Assistant).
We can restrict / as sysdba(Operating System Authentication) by configuring sqlnet.ora.
In sqlnet.ora we need to set a parameter sqlnet.authentication_services=none.
sqlnet.ora is mostly used in case of third party authentications.

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